Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring premieres in Paris. The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line
Outbreak of World War I
2,425 British & Commonwealth Jews killed and 6,500 wounded fighting for UK
300,000 Jews in Britain. 80% in London. 100,000 in Whitechapel/Aldgate area.
Passports made compulsory in Britain
‘Balfour Declaration’ gives British support to a Jewish homeland in Palestine
The Russian Revolution: The Tsar is overthrown and Lenin takes power
Limited numbers of women are given the vote for the first time
Bloom’s restaurant opens on Brick Lane in London’s East End
Albert Einstein is awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics
Mussolini comes to power in Italy
James Joyce’s Ulysses and TS Eliot’s The Waste Land are first published.
Marcel Proust, Joyce, Serge Diaghilev, Igor Stravinsky, Pablo Picasso, Erik Satie and Bloomsbury art critic Clive Bell dine together at the Hotel Majestic in Paris
Jewish immigration to USA limited by Johnson Act
The Jazz Singer begins the era of the ‘talkies’
First 5-Year Plan in USSR
All British women over the age of 21 get the vote
Wall Street Crash (29 October).
Gandhi leads Civil Disobedience movement in India
Herbert Loewe (Reader in Rabbinics) is the only professing Jewish fellow in Oxford – most Jewish undergraduates still hide their Jewish identity
The Empire State Building in New York is completed
Franklin D. Roosevelt elected US President
Oswald Mosley founds the British Union of Fascists – at its peak it has 36,000 members
Hitler comes to power in Germany. c. 565,000 Jews in Germany – by 1939 the figure is 130,000
70,000 Jewish refugees come to Britain between 1933-39
Nuremberg Laws introduced in Germany
Spanish Civil War (1936-39).
The Battle of Cable Street: Jews in the East End fight Mosley’s Blackshirts
Stalin’s Great Terror begins (1937-38).
Austrian Anschluss: c. 120,000 Jews leave Austria
Germany and USSR invade Poland. Outbreak of World War II.
Fall of France
Churchill succeeds Chamberlain as Prime Minister
The Battle of Britain
Internment of refugees in Britain
German army invades the Soviet Union
Henry Luce coins ‘The American Century’
Battles at Stalingrad and El Alamein mark the turning point in the Second World War
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
D-Day landings in Normandy
Labour wins the 1945 Election by a landslide.
The end of Second World War in Europe (May 8)
The first atomic bombs are dropped on Japan (August)
Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech in Fulton, Missouri
Indian Independence and Indian Partition
Establishment of the state of Israel
HMS Windrush brings 493 Caribbean people to Britain.
The British Nationality Act encourages people from the colonies to settle in Britain and help rebuild the country after war.
Communist People’s Republic of China proclaimed
The percentage of British Jews living in London rises from 58% to 72%
Festival of Britain
Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II
1953 Stalin dies
Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white passenger leading to the Montgomery bus boycott
British Prime Minsiter Harold Macmillan declares ‘most of our people have never had it so good’
Vicky’s ‘Supermac’ cartoon
Harold Macmillan’s ‘Winds of Change’ speech acknowledges independence in Africa
Eichmann Trial in Jerusalem
Berlin Wall built
Percentage of British population born abroad passes 5% for the first time.
Bob Dylan’s first album, the Beatles first single and the Rolling Stones make their debut
‘March on Washington’
Martin Luther King, ‘I Have a Dream’ speech
Economic growth for the year reaches a postwar high of 7.5%
Civil Rights Act in the USA
Race riots in Harlem, New York
Race Relations Act makes some discrimination unlawful
Time magazine declares ‘Swinging London’
Israel: Six-Day War
Asian immigrants start to arrive from Kenya
Enoch Powell makes his controversial ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech on immigration
The Race Relations Act is passed
UK inflation at a 30-year high at 8.6%
Unemployment exceeds one million for the first time since the 1930s. Thousands of Asians come to Britain after being expelled from Uganda.
Asians expelled from Uganda and 27,000 settle in UK
Britain enters the EEC
Yom Kippur War
Inflation reaches 24.2%
New Race Relations Act – Commission for Racial Equality established in UK
‘The Winter of Discontent’
Margaret Thatcher elected beginning almost twenty years of Conservative rule in Britain
Shah flees Iran – Ayatollah Khomeini takes power
Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children wins the Booker Prize
Unemployment passes 3 million for the first time since the 1930s
Docklands redevelopment in East London1984 Miners’ Strike
Band Aid charity single ‘Do They Know It’s Christmas’ goes on sale
My Beautiful Laundrette (film)
‘Tell Sid’: British Gas is privatised
The Big Bang – deregulation of financial markets in London
16 Jewish Tory MPs elected marking the shift to the right of Anglo-Jewry in 1980s
A fatwā calling for Salman Rushdie’s assassination issued by Ayatollah Khomeini
Fall of the Berlin Wall symbolises end of Communism in Central and East Europe
Nelson Mandela released from prison. German reunification.
Fall of Soviet Communism. 1990 60,000 people have access to the Internet. Margaret Thatcher resigns after over a decade as PM.
One Canada Square at Canary Wharf in London becomes the tallest building in the UK symbolising the rise of the City and the financial sector since the ‘Big Bang’
6 minority ethnic MP’s elected
First Asian judge appointed
Diane Samuels’ play Kindertransport and Howard Jacobson’s Roots Schmoots mark highpoint of new interest in the Holocaust and Jewish identity
Schindler’s List (film) and Holocaust Museum in Washington
End of apartheid in South Africa (1948-94)
Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa, 1994-99
Genocide in Rwanda
Bloom’s in Whitechapel closes: symbolises the end of the old East End. The term “Cool Britannia” widely used.
Tony Blair elected PM in Labour landslide victory
Ends 20 years of Conservative hegemony.
Holocaust exhibition opens at the Imperial War Museum
Radlett: the town with the highest % of Jews in England (24.06%). Marks the move of British Jews to south-east suburbs
The Twin Towers attacked by Al-Qaeda terrorists
Euro notes and coins introduced.
8 East European countries join the EU
iPhone introduced. The first year that more people lived in cities than in rural areas
Global financial crisis
Barack Obama becomes US President
Census shows that the percentage of UK population born abroad is 13.4%
ISIS in Syria and Iraq. Conflict in Ukraine