20th Century Timeline

1913

Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring premieres in Paris. The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line

1914

Outbreak of World War I

2,425 British & Commonwealth Jews killed and 6,500 wounded fighting for UK

300,000 Jews in Britain. 80% in London. 100,000 in Whitechapel/Aldgate area.

1915

Passports made compulsory in Britain

1917

‘Balfour Declaration’ gives British support to a Jewish homeland in Palestine

1917

The Russian Revolution: The Tsar is overthrown and Lenin takes power

1918

Limited numbers of women are given the vote for the first time

1920

Bloom’s restaurant opens on Brick Lane in London’s East End

1921

Albert Einstein is awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics

1922

Mussolini comes to power in Italy

James Joyce’s Ulysses and TS Eliot’s The Waste Land are first published.

Marcel Proust, Joyce, Serge Diaghilev, Igor Stravinsky, Pablo Picasso, Erik Satie and Bloomsbury art critic Clive Bell dine together at the Hotel Majestic in Paris

1924

Jewish immigration to USA limited by Johnson Act

Lenin dies

1927

The Jazz Singer begins the era of the ‘talkies’

1928

First 5-Year Plan in USSR

All British women over the age of 21 get the vote

1929

Wall Street Crash (29 October).

1930

Gandhi leads Civil Disobedience movement in India

1930

Herbert Loewe (Reader in Rabbinics) is the only professing Jewish fellow in Oxford – most Jewish undergraduates still hide their Jewish identity

1931

The Empire State Building in New York is completed

1932

Franklin D. Roosevelt elected US President

1932

Oswald Mosley founds the British Union of Fascists – at its peak it has 36,000 members

1933

Hitler comes to power in Germany. c. 565,000 Jews in Germany – by 1939 the figure is 130,000

1933

70,000 Jewish refugees come to Britain between 1933-39

1935

Nuremberg Laws introduced in Germany

1936

Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

1936

The Battle of Cable Street: Jews in the East End fight Mosley’s Blackshirts

1937

Stalin’s Great Terror begins (1937-38).

1938

Austrian Anschluss: c. 120,000 Jews leave Austria

1939

Germany and USSR invade Poland. Outbreak of World War II.

1940

Fall of France

1940

Churchill succeeds Chamberlain as Prime Minister

The Battle of Britain

1940-41

Internment of refugees in Britain

1941

German army invades the Soviet Union

Henry Luce coins ‘The American Century’

1941-45

The Holocaust

1942

Battles at Stalingrad and El Alamein mark the turning point in the Second World War

1943

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

1944

D-Day landings in Normandy

1945

Labour wins the 1945 Election by a landslide.

1945

The end of Second World War in Europe (May 8)

The first atomic bombs are dropped on Japan (August)

Japan surrenders

1946

Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech in Fulton, Missouri

1947

Indian Independence and Indian Partition

1948

Establishment of the state of Israel

HMS Windrush brings 493 Caribbean people to Britain.

The British Nationality Act encourages people from the colonies to settle in Britain and help rebuild the country after war.

1949

Communist People’s Republic of China proclaimed

1950-95

The percentage of British Jews living in London rises from 58% to 72%

1951

Festival of Britain

1953

Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II

1953 Stalin dies

1955

Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white passenger leading to the Montgomery bus boycott

1957

British Prime Minsiter Harold Macmillan declares ‘most of our people have never had it so good’

1958

Vicky’s ‘Supermac’ cartoon

1960

Harold Macmillan’s ‘Winds of Change’ speech acknowledges independence in Africa

1961

Eichmann Trial in Jerusalem

Berlin Wall built

1961

Percentage of British population born abroad passes 5% for the first time.

1962

Bob Dylan’s first album, the Beatles first single and the Rolling Stones make their debut

1963

‘March on Washington’

Martin Luther King, ‘I Have a Dream’ speech

JFK assassinated.

Economic growth for the year reaches a postwar high of 7.5%

1964

Civil Rights Act in the USA

Race riots in Harlem, New York

1965

Race Relations Act makes some discrimination unlawful

1966

Time magazine declares ‘Swinging London’

1967

Israel: Six-Day War

1968

Asian immigrants start to arrive from Kenya

Enoch Powell makes his controversial ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech on immigration

The Race Relations Act is passed

1971

UK inflation at a 30-year high at 8.6%

1972

Unemployment exceeds one million for the first time since the 1930s. Thousands of Asians come to Britain after being expelled from Uganda.

1972

Asians expelled from Uganda and 27,000 settle in UK

1973

Britain enters the EEC

1973

Yom Kippur War

1975

Inflation reaches 24.2%

Micrososft founded

1976

Apple founded

New Race Relations Act – Commission for Racial Equality established in UK

1978

‘The Winter of Discontent’

1979

Margaret Thatcher elected beginning almost twenty years of Conservative rule in Britain

1979

Shah flees Iran – Ayatollah Khomeini takes power

1981

Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children wins the Booker Prize

1982

Unemployment passes 3 million for the first time since the 1930s

Falklands War

1983

Docklands redevelopment in East London1984 Miners’ Strike

Band Aid charity single ‘Do They Know It’s Christmas’ goes on sale

1985

My Beautiful Laundrette (film)

1986

‘Tell Sid’: British Gas is privatised

The Big Bang – deregulation of financial markets in London

1987

16 Jewish Tory MPs elected marking the shift to the right of Anglo-Jewry in 1980s

1989

A fatwā calling for Salman Rushdie’s assassination issued by Ayatollah Khomeini

1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall symbolises end of Communism in Central and East Europe

1990

Nelson Mandela released from prison. German reunification.

1991

Fall of Soviet Communism. 1990 60,000 people have access to the Internet. Margaret Thatcher resigns after over a decade as PM.

One Canada Square at Canary Wharf in London becomes the tallest building in the UK symbolising the rise of the City and the financial sector since the ‘Big Bang’

1992

6 minority ethnic MP’s elected

First Asian judge appointed

1993

Diane Samuels’ play Kindertransport and Howard Jacobson’s Roots Schmoots mark highpoint of new interest in the Holocaust and Jewish identity

Schindler’s List (film) and Holocaust Museum in Washington

1994

End of apartheid in South Africa (1948-94)

Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa, 1994-99

Genocide in Rwanda

1996

Bloom’s in Whitechapel closes: symbolises the end of the old East End. The term “Cool Britannia” widely used.

1997

Tony Blair elected PM in Labour landslide victory

Ends 20 years of Conservative hegemony.

2000

Holocaust exhibition opens at the Imperial War Museum

2001

Radlett: the town with the highest % of Jews in England (24.06%). Marks the move of British Jews to south-east suburbs

2001

The Twin Towers attacked by Al-Qaeda terrorists

iPod introduced

2002

Euro notes and coins introduced.

2004

8 East European countries join the EU

2007

iPhone introduced. The first year that more people lived in cities than in rural areas

2008

Global financial crisis

2009

Barack Obama becomes US President

2011

Census shows that the percentage of UK population born abroad is 13.4%

2014

ISIS in Syria and Iraq. Conflict in Ukraine