20th Century Art Timeline

1905c

Beginnings of Ecole Juive in Paris

1910

Roger Fry organises controversial ‘Manet and the Post-Impressionists’ exhibition

1911-12

Epstein’s Oscar Wilde Memorial – Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris

1912

Roger Fry’s 2nd Post-Impressionist Exhibition at the Grafton Galleries

1913

The Armory Show in New York introduces Modernism to America

The London Group founded

1913-14

Epstein, The Rock Drill

1914

‘Twentieth Century Art: A Review of Modern Art Movements’ at the Whitechapel Gallery

The founding exhibition of the London Group

1916

Isaac Rosenberg Self-Portrait in a Steel Helmet

Mark Gertler Merry-Go-Round

1918

Isaac Rosenberg killed on the Western Front.

1919

Jacob Kramer Day of Atonement

1920

David Bomberg Ghetto Theatre

1925

1st group exhibition of Surrealists, Paris

1926

Decision of the Tate to exhibit contemporary European art

1928

London Group’s Retrospective Exhibition: 1914-1928 (New Burlington Galleries)

1929

MOMA opens in New York

1929-53

Jacob Epstein receives no large commissions

1933

Beginning of exodus of Jewish refugee artists from Germany and later from Nazi-occupied Europe including Jankel Adler, Martin Bloch, the Meidners, Lucian Freud and Frank Auerbach.

1934-45

Kenneth Clark director of the National Gallery

1935

First entirely abstract exhibition in Britain

1937

Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibition in Germany

Picasso’s Guernica

Isaac Rosenberg’s first solo exhibition (Whitechapel Art Gallery)

Foundation of the Euston Road School

1938

The Exhibition of Twentieth-Century German Art, the New Burlington Galleries

1939

Barbara Hepworth & Ben Nicholson move to St Ives. Joined by Naum Gabo

1940-41

Refugee artists interned, inc Martin Bloch, Ludwig Meidner & Kurt Schwitters

1940-45

War Artists Advisory Commission

1943

David Bomberg’s last one-man show in London during his lifetime

1944

Lucian Freud’s first one-man show (Alex Reid and Lefevre Gallery)

John Piper English Romantic Artists

1945-53

David Bomberg teaches at the Borough Polytechnic. Pupils include Auerbach and Kossoff

1945-46

Picasso and Matisse exhibition at the Victoria & Albert museum

1945-50

Stanley Spencer, Resurrection pictures

1946

The Marlborough Gallery and Gimpel Fils open in London.

1946

The Tate reopens with Braque and Rouault exhibition

1946-51

The Borough Group

1947

Erica Brausen starts the Hanover Gallery

1947-50

David Sylvester’s extended visits to Paris

1948

Henry Moore won the International Sculpture Prize at the first post-war Venice Biennale.

David Sylvester writes of the School of London

1949

Francis Bacon’s first one-man show at the Hanover Gallery

1950

Lucian Freud’s first one-man show at the Hanover Gallery

American Abstract Expressionists exhibit at the Venice Biennale

1951

Helen Lessore takes over the Beaux Arts Gallery

Herbert Read, Contemporary British Art (Pelican Books)

Festival of Britain

‘Towards a New Realism’ lecture by David Sylvester at the Royal College of Art

1951-60

John Berger, art critic at the New Statesman

1952

Epstein exhibition, the Tate Gallery

‘Looking Forward: British Realist Pictures’ at the Whitechapel Art Gallery curated by John Berger

‘Recent Trends in Realist Painting’ at the ICA curated by David Sylvester

1952-68

Bryan Robertson, director of the Whitechapel Gallery

1953

Graham Sutherland one-man show at the Tate Gallery

1953-56

The Beaux Arts Quartet and ‘Kitchen sink realism’

1954

Francis Bacon at the Venice Biennale; catalogue introduction by David Sylvester

David Sylvester ‘The Kitchen Sink’ (published in Encounter)

Jacob Epstein knighted

1956

‘Modern Art in the US’ exhibition at the Tate Gallery, introduces Abstract Expressionism to Britain

Frank Auerbach’s first solo show at Beaux Arts Gallery

Richard Hamilton, Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (first famous work of Pop Art in Britain)

1957

Leon Kossoff’s first one-man show at Beaux Arts Gallery

1958

R B Kitaj arrives in Britain

Jackson Pollock exhibition, The Whitechapel Gallery

Lawrence Alloway coins the term ‘Pop Art’

1958-72

Lucian Freud exhibits at the Marlborough

1958-77

Kenneth Clark’s TV programmes on art for ATV and BBC

1959

Jacob Epstein, Matthew Smith, Stanley Spencer and Eva Frankfurther deaths announced

‘The New American painting’ exhibition at Tate Gallery

1960

John Berger Permanent Red (essays from his New Statesman column, 1954-59)

1961

First Rothko exhibition in the UK (Whitechapel Art Gallery)

1962

Monitor: Pop Goes the Easel Ken Russell’s BBC TV documentary on Pop Art

Andy Warhol’s first New York solo pop art exhibition

Francis Bacon retrospective at The Tate

1963

R B Kitaj stages first solo exhibition at Marlborough New London Gallery in London

1964

David Sylvester, ‘Art of the Coke Culture’ (Sunday Times Colour Magazine)

The London Group Jubilee Exhibition held at the Tate Gallery

David Hockney moves to Los Angeles

1967

David Bomberg 1890–1957: Paintings and Drawings exhibition at Tate Gallery

David Hockney A Bigger Splash

1969

Kenneth Clark presents Civilisation broadcast on BBC2

1970

David Hockney’s first retrospective at The Whitechapel Gallery

1972

Freud breaks with the Marlborough Gallery

John Berger presents Ways of Seeing broadcast on BBC2

1974

Arts Council Lucian Freud retrospective at the Hayward Gallery

1975

Ben Uri 60th Anniversary Exhibition

1975-6

Lucian Freud’s portraits of his friend Frank Auerbach

1976

Kenneth Clark appojnted OM

1977

Pompidou Centre opens in Paris

1979

David Bomberg: the Later Years Whitechapel Art Gallery

1981

A New Spirit of Painting The Royal Academy includes Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud and Francis Bacon

Eight Figurative Painters The Yale Center for British Art in New Haven includes Francis Bacon, Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud & Leon Kossoff

1982-84

‘Zeitgeist’ exhibition includes Baselitz, Schabel and Hodgkin, Berlin & MOMA

1983

Lucian Freud made Companion of Honour

‘British Jewish Artists 1900-1945–The Migrant Generation’ (Jewish Museum, New York)

1984

First Turner Prize awarded.

1984-85

Josef Herman, Memory of Memories (Ben Uri, Glasgow)

1985

The Saatchi Galley opens in St. John’s Wood

1987

Anthony Caro knighted

David Bomberg by Richard Cork published

1987-88

The British Council organized Freud’s first international retrospective

1988

Freeze exhibition organised by Damien Hirst

Tate Liverpool opens

1990-91

Chagall to Kitaj: Jewish Experience in 20th Century Art (Barbican Art Gallery)

1991

Damien Hirst’s shark in formaldehyde

1992

The Saatchi Gallery stages the Young British Artists exhibition, featuring Damien Hirst’s ‘shark’

1993

Lucian Freud awarded OM

Lucian Freud ‘Recent Work’ exhibition at The Whitechapel Gallery

Tate Gallery, St Ives opens

Tracey Emin’s first solo show (White Cube)

The White Cube gallery opens (2000 moves to Hoxton)

Rachel Whiteread House

1994

Lucian Freud solo show at the Metropolitan Museum, New York

1995

Frank Auerbach exhibition at The National Gallery

Marcus Harvey, Myra (portrait of Myra Hindley exhibited at Sensation, 1997)

Tracey Emin, Everyone I Have Ever Slept With 1963–1995

1995-96

Brilliant! Group exhibition inc. the Chapman Brothers, Tracey Emin & Damien Hirst

1996

Leon Kossoff restrospective at The Tate Gallery

Term YBAs (Young British Artists) coined

1997

Charles Saatchi’s Sensation (exhibition) at the Royal Academy: includes Hirst’s ‘shark’, Emin’s ‘tent’, Quinn’s ‘head’

David Hockney made a Companion of Honour

1998

Chris Ofili wins the Turner Prize

1999

Tracey Emin My Bed

2000

Tate Modern opens

Chapman Brothers Hell

Rachel Whiteread Holocaust Monument, Judenplatz, Vienna

2001

Lucian Freud portrait HM Queen Elizabeth II (2001) (now in the Royal collections)

Frank Auerbach exhibition Paintings and Drawings, 1954-2001 at the Royal Academy

2002

Lucian Freud full retrospective at Tate Britain to mark his 80th birthday

2003

Chapman Brothers Insult to Injury

2007

‘Leon Kossoff: Drawing from Painting’ exhibition at The National Gallery

2008

Lucian Freud solo show at MOMA

2009

Frank Auerbach exhibition ‘The London Building Sites, 1952-1962’ at the Courtauld Gallery

2011

Lucian Freud dies

2012

David Hockney awarded OM

David Hockney exhibition ‘A Bigger Picture’ at the Royal Academy

2013

Francis Bacon’s Three Studies of Lucian Freud sells for US$142.4 million in a New York auction

2013-14

Leon Kossoff ‘London Landscapes’ exhibition

2015

Frank Auerbach retrospective at Tate Britain